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Author Bisgaard, H.; Li, N.; Bonnelykke, K.; Chawes, B.L.K.; Skov, T.; Paludan-Muller, G.; Stokholm, J.; Smith, B.; Krogfelt, K.A. url  doi
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  Title Reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota during infancy is associated with increased risk of allergic disease at school age Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2011 Publication The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal J Allergy Clin Immunol  
  Volume 128 Issue 3 Pages 646-52.e1-5  
  Keywords Bacteria/*classification/genetics/isolation & purification; Child; Cohort Studies; DNA, Bacterial/analysis; Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis; Eosinophilia/diagnosis/epidemiology; Feces/microbiology; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Immediate/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intestines/*microbiology; *Metagenome; Polymerase Chain Reaction; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics; Rhinitis/diagnosis/epidemiology; Risk; Skin Tests  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Changes in the human microbiome have been suggested as a risk factor for a number of lifestyle-related disorders, such as atopic diseases, possibly through a modifying influence on immune maturation in infancy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the association between neonatal fecal flora and the development of atopic disorders until age 6 years, hypothesizing that the diversity of the intestinal microbiota influences disease development. METHODS: We studied the intestinal microbiota in infants in the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood, a clinical study of a birth cohort of 411 high-risk children followed for 6 years by clinical assessments at 6-month intervals, as well as at acute symptom exacerbations. Bacterial flora was analyzed at 1 and 12 months of age by using molecular techniques based on 16S rRNA PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, as well as conventional culturing. The main outcome measures were the development of allergic sensitization (skin test and specific serum IgE), allergic rhinitis, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, asthma, and atopic dermatitis during the first 6 years of life. RESULTS: We found that bacterial diversity in the early intestinal flora 1 and 12 months after birth was inversely associated with the risk of allergic sensitization (serum specific IgE P = .003; skin prick test P = .017), peripheral blood eosinophils (P = .034), and allergic rhinitis (P = .007). There was no association with the development of asthma or atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced bacterial diversity of the infant's intestinal flora was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization, allergic rhinitis, and peripheral blood eosinophilia, but not asthma or atopic dermatitis, in the first 6 years of life. These results support the general hypothesis that an imbalance in the intestinal microbiome is influencing the development of lifestyle-related disorders, such as allergic disease.  
  Address Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark. Bisgaard@copsac.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Impact Factor 11,476 First Author Bisgaard, H. Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Senior Author Krogfelt, K.A.  
  ISSN 0091-6749 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21782228 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 64  
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