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Author Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Sorensen, M.; Hertel, O.; Chawes, B.L.K.; Vissing, N.; Bonnelykke, K.; Bisgaard, H. url  doi
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  Title Predictors of indoor fine particulate matter in infants' bedrooms in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2011 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 111 Issue 1 Pages 87-93  
  Keywords Cohort Studies; Denmark; Housing; Humans; Infant; Linear Models; Particulate Matter/*analysis; Risk Factors; Seasons  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is responsible for adverse health effects in adults and children. Relatively little is known about the concentrations, sources and health effects of PM in indoor air. OBJECTIVE: To identify sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. METHODS: We conducted 1122 measurements of fine PM (PM(2.5) and black smoke) in the bedrooms of 389 infants and registered indoor activities and characteristics of the house. We used mixed models to identify and quantify associations between predictors and concentrations. RESULTS: The concentration of PM(2.5) was 2.8 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.5 times) higher in houses where people smoked; the concentration increased by 19% (95% CI, 15-23%) per doubling of the amount of tobacco smoked and decreased by 16% (95% CI, 9-27%) per 5-m increase in the distance between the smoking area and the infant's bedroom. Frying without a range hood was associated with a 32% (95% CI, 12-54%) higher PM(2.5) concentration per time per day, whereas frying with use of a range hood did not increase the concentration in the infant's bedroom. Use of a fireplace, stove, candles or vacuum-cleaner, interior rebuilding or renovation, local traffic, inner city residence and cold season increased the fine PM concentration. Open windows decreased the PM(2.5) concentration in homes with smokers but increased the concentration in non-smoking homes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several sources of fine PM in infants' bedrooms. The concentrations can be reduced by use of a range hood for frying, by not using candles, a fireplace or a stove, by increasing the distance between the bedroom and the smoking area and by opening windows in houses of smokers. Smoking is a strong predictor of fine PM in infants' bedrooms and should be avoided.  
  Address Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Impact Factor 04,373 First Author Raaschou-Nielsen, O. Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Senior Author Bisgaard, H.  
  ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21059467 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 61  
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