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Author Sevelsted, A.; Stokholm, J.; Bonnelykke, K.; Bisgaard, H. url  doi
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  Title Cesarean section and chronic immune disorders Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2015 Publication Pediatrics Abbreviated Journal Pediatrics  
  Volume 135 Issue 1 Pages e92-8  
  Keywords Adolescent; Cesarean Section/*statistics & numerical data; Child; Child, Preschool; Chronic Disease; Female; Humans; Immune System Diseases/*epidemiology; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; asthma; cesarean section; inflammatory disease; origins; prenatal; programming  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated with the development of some of these diseases. METHODS: Mature children born by cesarean delivery were analyzed for risk of hospital contact for chronic immune diseases recorded in the Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Two million term children participated in the primary analysis. We studied childhood diseases with a suspected relation to a deviant immune-maturation and a debut at young age. The effect of cesarean delivery on childhood disease incidences were estimated by means of confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained in Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Children delivered by cesarean delivery had significantly increased risk of asthma, systemic connective tissue disorders, juvenile arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, immune deficiencies, and leukemia. No associations were found between cesarean delivery and type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, or celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: Cesarean delivery exemplifies a shared environmental risk factor in early life associating with several chronic immune diseases. Understanding commonalities in the underlying mechanisms behind chronic diseases may give novel insight into their origin and allow prevention.  
  Address Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen & Danish Pediatric Asthma Center, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; and  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Impact Factor 05,473 First Author Sevelsted, A. Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Senior Author Bisgaard, H.  
  ISSN 0031-4005 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25452656 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 54  
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