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Author Okbay, A.; Beauchamp, J.P.; Fontana, M.A.; Lee, J.J.; Pers, T.H.; Rietveld, C.A.; Turley, P.; Chen, G.-B.; Emilsson, V.; Meddens, S.F.W.; Oskarsson, S.; Pickrell, J.K.; Thom, K.; Timshel, P.; de Vlaming, R.; Abdellaoui, A.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Bacelis, J.; Baumbach, C.; Bjornsdottir, G.; Brandsma, J.H.; Pina Concas, M.; Derringer, J.; Furlotte, N.A.; Galesloot, T.E.; Girotto, G.; Gupta, R.; Hall, L.M.; Harris, S.E.; Hofer, E.; Horikoshi, M.; Huffman, J.E.; Kaasik, K.; Kalafati, I.P.; Karlsson, R.; Kong, A.; Lahti, J.; van der Lee, S.J.; deLeeuw, C.; Lind, P.A.; Lindgren, K.-O.; Liu, T.; Mangino, M.; Marten, J.; Mihailov, E.; Miller, M.B.; van der Most, P.J.; Oldmeadow, C.; Payton, A.; Pervjakova, N.; Peyrot, W.J.; Qian, Y.; Raitakari, O.; Rueedi, R.; Salvi, E.; Schmidt, B.; Schraut, K.E.; Shi, J.; Smith, A.V.; Poot, R.A.; St Pourcain, B.; Teumer, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Verweij, N.; Vuckovic, D.; Wellmann, J.; Westra, H.-J.; Yang, J.; Zhao, W.; Zhu, Z.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Amin, N.; Bakshi, A.; Baumeister, S.E.; Biino, G.; Bonnelykke, K.; Boyle, P.A.; Campbell, H.; Cappuccio, F.P.; Davies, G.; De Neve, J.-E.; Deloukas, P.; Demuth, I.; Ding, J.; Eibich, P.; Eisele, L.; Eklund, N.; Evans, D.M.; Faul, J.D.; Feitosa, M.F.; Forstner, A.J.; Gandin, I.; Gunnarsson, B.; Halldorsson, B.V.; Harris, T.B.; Heath, A.C.; Hocking, L.J.; Holliday, E.G.; Homuth, G.; Horan, M.A.; Hottenga, J.-J.; de Jager, P.L.; Joshi, P.K.; Jugessur, A.; Kaakinen, M.A.; Kahonen, M.; Kanoni, S.; Keltigangas-Jarvinen, L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Kolcic, I.; Koskinen, S.; Kraja, A.T.; Kroh, M.; Kutalik, Z.; Latvala, A.; Launer, L.J.; Lebreton, M.P.; Levinson, D.F.; Lichtenstein, P.; Lichtner, P.; Liewald, D.C.M.; Loukola, A.; Madden, P.A.; Magi, R.; Maki-Opas, T.; Marioni, R.E.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Meddens, G.A.; McMahon, G.; Meisinger, C.; Meitinger, T.; Milaneschi, Y.; Milani, L.; Montgomery, G.W.; Myhre, R.; Nelson, C.P.; Nyholt, D.R.; Ollier, W.E.R.; Palotie, A.; Paternoster, L.; Pedersen, N.L.; Petrovic, K.E.; Porteous, D.J.; Raikkonen, K.; Ring, S.M.; Robino, A.; Rostapshova, O.; Rudan, I.; Rustichini, A.; Salomaa, V.; Sanders, A.R.; Sarin, A.-P.; Schmidt, H.; Scott, R.J.; Smith, B.H.; Smith, J.A.; Staessen, J.A.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E.; Strauch, K.; Terracciano, A.; Tobin, M.D.; Ulivi, S.; Vaccargiu, S.; Quaye, L.; van Rooij, F.J.A.; Venturini, C.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Volker, U.; Volzke, H.; Vonk, J.M.; Vozzi, D.; Waage, J.; Ware, E.B.; Willemsen, G.; Attia, J.R.; Bennett, D.A.; Berger, K.; Bertram, L.; Bisgaard, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Borecki, I.B.; Bultmann, U.; Chabris, C.F.; Cucca, F.; Cusi, D.; Deary, I.J.; Dedoussis, G.V.; van Duijn, C.M.; Eriksson, J.G.; Franke, B.; Franke, L.; Gasparini, P.; Gejman, P.V.; Gieger, C.; Grabe, H.-J.; Gratten, J.; Groenen, P.J.F.; Gudnason, V.; van der Harst, P.; Hayward, C.; Hinds, D.A.; Hoffmann, W.; Hypponen, E.; Iacono, W.G.; Jacobsson, B.; Jarvelin, M.-R.; Jockel, K.-H.; Kaprio, J.; Kardia, S.L.R.; Lehtimaki, T.; Lehrer, S.F.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Martin, N.G.; McGue, M.; Metspalu, A.; Pendleton, N.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Perola, M.; Pirastu, N.; Pirastu, M.; Polasek, O.; Posthuma, D.; Power, C.; Province, M.A.; Samani, N.J.; Schlessinger, D.; Schmidt, R.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Spector, T.D.; Stefansson, K.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Thurik, A.R.; Timpson, N.J.; Tiemeier, H.; Tung, J.Y.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Vitart, V.; Vollenweider, P.; Weir, D.R.; Wilson, J.F.; Wright, A.F.; Conley, D.C.; Krueger, R.F.; Davey Smith, G.; Hofman, A.; Laibson, D.I.; Medland, S.E.; Meyer, M.N.; Yang, J.; Johannesson, M.; Visscher, P.M.; Esko, T.; Koellinger, P.D.; Cesarini, D.; Benjamin, D.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 533 Issue 7604 Pages 539-542  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.  
  Address Center for Economic and Social Research, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-3332, USA  
  Corporate Author LifeLines Cohort Study Thesis  
  Impact Factor 41,456 First Author Okbay, A Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Senior Author Benjamin, D.J.  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27225129 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 321  
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