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Author Nikander, K.; Bisgaard, H. url  openurl
  Title Impact of constant and breath-synchronized nebulization on inhaled mass of nebulized budesonide in infants and children Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 1999 Publication Pediatric Pulmonology Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Pulmonol  
  Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 187-193  
  Keywords Administration, Inhalation; Age Factors; Asthma/*drug therapy; Bronchodilator Agents/*administration & dosage; Budesonide/*administration & dosage; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Over Studies; Equipment Design; Female; Filtration/instrumentation; Humans; Infant; Male; *Nebulizers and Vaporizers; Respiration; Tidal Volume  
  Abstract The aim of the present study was to compare the output of a breath-synchronized jet nebulizer to a conventional constant output nebulizer over a fixed period of time in terms of inhaled mass of budesonide, i.e., the amount of budesonide deposited on a filter interposed between the nebulizer and the face mask. One hundred and sixty-five asthmatic children (103 boys) were enrolled in this open, randomized, crossover trial. Their age ranged from 6 months to 7.9 years, height from 69 to 132 cm, and weight from 8.2 to 31.3 kg. Their duration of asthma ranged from less than 1 to 7 years. Budesonide suspension, 0.5 mg mL-1, 2 mL, was used. With 5 min of constant output nebulization, the mean inhaled mass of budesonide in percent of the nominal dose was 11.4% in the youngest children and 14.9% in the 7-year-old children. Expressed in percent of the total output of budesonide, i.e., the amount that left the nebulizer as an aerosol, the inhaled mass ranged from 34.6-48.6%. Thus, 51.4-65.4% of the total output was deposited on the expiratory filter. With 5 min of breath-synchronized nebulization, the mean inhaled mass ranged from 10.5-14.9% of the nominal dose. For the youngest patients less than 3-4 years of age, it was approximately 80-90% of the total output. For the older patients the inhaled mass was approximately 95% of the total output, i.e., only small amounts of budesonide were deposited on the expiratory filter. For both modes of nebulization the between-subject variation in inhaled mass was large: up to 6-fold in the young children and 3-4-fold in the older ones. The results of the present study showed that the inhaled mass of budesonide was significantly age-dependent with both modes of nebulization, i.e., the inhaled mass was less in younger children. Breath-synchronized nebulization resulted in reduced waste of drug during expiration.  
  Address AstraZeneca R&D, Lund, Sweden. kurt.nikander@draco.se.astra.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Impact Factor 02,704 First Author Nikander, K. Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Senior Author Bisgaard, H.  
  ISSN 1099-0496 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10495335 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 214  
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