Nat. Commun. January 2018
Maturation of the gut microbiome and risk of asthma in childhood.
Stokholm J, Blaser MJ, Thorsen J, Rasmussen MA, Waage J, Vinding RK, Schoos AM, Kunøe A, Fink NR, Chawes BL, Bønnelykke K, Brejnrod AD, Mortensen MS, Al-Soud WA, Sørensen SJ, Bisgaard H.
The composition of the human gut microbiome matures within the first years of life. It has been hypothesized that microbial compositions in this period can cause immune dysregulations and potentially cause asthma. Here we show, by associating gut microbial composition from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing during the first year of life with subsequent risk of asthma in 690 participants, that 1-year-old children with an immature microbial composition have an increased risk of asthma at age 5 years. This association is only apparent among children born to asthmatic mothers, suggesting that lacking microbial stimulation during the first year of life can trigger their inherited asthma risk. Conversely, adequate maturation of the gut microbiome in this period may protect these pre-disposed children.